Dog Ownership in Japan: A Manual for Foreign Residents
Thinking of bringing your dog to Japan? Considering adopting a puppy? Knowing the rules surrounding dog ownership in Japan will help you plan ahead and keep you and your buddy safe.
According to the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, dog owners in Japan have the following legal obligations:
Register their dog with the municipality in which they currently reside.
Have their dog receive a rabies shot once a year.
Attach a dog tag and a vaccination certificate to the dog.
While the legal requirements are brief, there's plenty to be aware of when living in Japan with a dog. We look at the essential topics and cover Japan's new microchip registration for pets, Shinkansen pet policy, what to do if your dog has hurt others, and more.
Registering a dog in Japan
Dog owners must register their dogs within 30 days of acquiring a dog 91 days of age or older. The purpose of dog registration is to identify the dog's owner and allow the municipality to inform dog owners in case of a rabies outbreak. Once registered, the registration is valid for life. While registration happens only once in a dog's lifetime, if you move locations or if the dog dies, you must notify the city office so records can be updated. According to the Rabies Prevention Act, failure to register one's dog may result in a ¥200,000 fine.
Registration at a city office typically costs ¥3,000. However, some city offices, such as Minato City have waived this fee during the COVID pandemic.
Most city offices have a page on their site where dog registration details can be found. Search for [your city] + 犬の登録.
Image. According to Rakuten Insight, the average cost of care for dogs in Japan is ¥9,360 per month.
Rabies vaccination for dogs in Japan
Dog owners must have their dogs receive a rabies shot. Typically, this occurs between April 1 and June 30 every year. The dog is then issued a tag which it must wear to show proof of vaccination. The rabies vaccine certificate fee is ¥550 per dog.
According to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the last case of rabies infection in Japan occurred in 2006, when an individual incurred a dog bite in the Philippines. After returning to Japan, the individual developed rabies and died. Before this, the last known rabies case in Japan occurred in 1970.
Pet clinics throughout Japan administer the rabies vaccine shot (狂犬病ワクチン = kyoukenbyou wakuchin). Go here for a nationwide directory of pet clinics to find one in your area.
Bringing a dog to Japan
If you are moving to Japan and plan to bring your dog, you must follow import procedures based on whether you reside in a designated or non-designated region.
Japan's Animal Quarantine Section provides detailed guidance in English on the matter. Click here if you are a dog owner in a designated region (Iceland, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji Islands, Hawaii, Guam), or here if you reside in a non-designated region (all other regions).
Image. Step by step how to import your dog from a designated region to Japan, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
Image. Step by step how to import your dog from a non-designated region to Japan, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.How to Bring Your Pets to Japan
Video. "How to Bring Your Pets to Japan" by Eatyourkimchi Studio.
What to do if your dog hurts others or causes damage in Japan
If a dog has injured another person through the owner's negligence, the owner may be held legally liable under Article 209 of the Penal Code, subject to a ¥300,000 fine.
Article 718 of the Civil Code also states, "The possessor of an animal shall be liable to compensate for damages caused by the animal to another person."
If your dog bites another dog, the case would legally be considered the same as if it had damaged property. And the dog owner would be responsible for paying for damages, i.e., reimbursement for medical treatment and fees. Correct etiquette here is to offer your contact information so the injured party can follow up with you in the future.
If you or your pet has been injured by a dog, you can file a police report (被害届 = higaitodoke) and report the case to your local city office so they can launch a rabies investigation.
Etiquette at dog runs in Japan
Japan has leash laws in place, which means that unless you are at a dog run or a park that allows unleashed dogs, your dog must always be on a leash. Thankfully, there are many dog runs for your dog to enjoy. Dog-ful.com (Japanese site) lists dog runs, dog cafes, dog hotels, and dog salons for dog owners in Japan.
The following are dog-run etiquette points recommended by various dog sites in Japan.
Allow your dog to take care of toilet business before entering the dog run.
Put a manner band on your dog if the situation warrants it.
Ensure your dog can follow basic commands, such as sit or come.
If your dog excretes in the dog run, clean it up.
Monitor your dog at all times while in the dog run.
Don't give treats to other dogs.
These are general guidelines, and some dog runs will have their own requirements. Look up the dog run online to learn what rules to follow and prepare accordingly.
Traveling with your dog on a train in Japan
If you use a JR East train, the rules for traveling with your dog are as follows:
The animal's total length, width, and height must not exceed 120 centimeters.
The combined weight of the case and the animal must not exceed 10 kilograms.
The fee for personal effects is ¥290.
Guidance dogs are the exception to these rules and are allowed to ride free of charge.
The following is a Google Translated chart of dog allowances for trains in the Kanto area. To see the original in Japanese and dog rules for train lines in other regions in Japan, go here.
Image. Dog carrier sizes and fees for train travel in Kanto by Rentio.
Note: Most often, Shinkansen pet policy will follow the allowances of the lines they operate under. For instance, the Narita Express is operated by JR East, and, therefore will follow JR East's carry-on fee and size allowance
When you cannot care for your dog in Japan
In principle, dog owners in Japan are expected to care for their dogs until the end of its life (lifetime care). However, if you cannot keep your pet due to unavoidable circumstances, you should look into adoption possibilities for your dog. Many municipalities in Japan will have local resources that may be able to help. Pet Home is a well-known online adoption site (Japanese) that can help you list your pet for rehoming. Guidelines for doing so are here (Japanese).
What to do if a pet dies in Japan
When your dog dies, you must submit a death report (死亡届 = shibou todoke) to the city office within 30 days of the death. You will provide your address, name, date of death, your dog's identification tag, and your dog's rabies vaccination certificate.
Some city offices throughout Japan provide cremation services for pets within a specific size. For example, Minato City will pick up and cremate a pet under 25kg for ¥2600. For pets that weigh more than 25kg, you must call a professional cremation service.
Japan's new law concerning microchip registration for pets
Starting from June 2022, the revised Animal Protection Law will come into effect, requiring dogs and cats sold by breeders and pet stores to be fitted with a microchip.
The general practice will be for microchips to be implanted in the back of the neck, enabling digital access to the owner's information through a scanning device. This law will make it easier to identify the owner if the dog gets separated from its family. It is also expected to help prevent pet abandonment.
More English-language material on dog ownership in Japan
Dog-Keeping Rules and Manners in Japan, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
What's it like having dogs in Japan? Nomadic Gaijin in Japan
Having a Dog in Japan [Price, Running Cost, Environment], Travelearn Japanese
Animal Refuge Kansai, Non-Profit Organization
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